Research Article|Articles in Press

Evaluation of SARDAC technique during En-masse retraction in lingual orthodontics

Published:January 29, 2023DOI:


      To evaluate the predictability of (SARDAC) technique regarding torque control and vertical movement during en-masse retraction in lingual orthodontics.
      Different setups of the SARDAC technique were tested during en-masse retraction in lingual orthodontics. Simulated retraction was performed using the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS). Lever arms were welded between the lateral incisor and canine brackets bilaterally on a 0.017“X0.025” inch maxillary lingual stainless- steel wire. Bilateral, nickel titanium coil springs were used to apply a retraction force of 1.5 N per side on para-median mini-screws, inter radicular mini-screws and to the first molar brackets
      Regarding the torque, the group where the force was applied between the 15 mm lever-arm and the first molar bracket, was the only group that showed statistically significant difference (palatal root torque) during en-masse retraction compared to the control group. Regarding the vertical movement, no statistically significant difference was found between any mechanical setup and the control group.
      SARDAC technique is predictable and efficient in controlling torque and vertical movement during en-masse retraction in lingual orthodontics.


      SARDAC (Skeletal Anchorage, Right direction of the forces, Absolute control of the tooth movement), OMSS (Orthodontic measurement and simulation system), TADS (Temporary anchorage devices), CR (Center of resistance), NiTi (Nickel Titanium)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Seminars in Orthodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Vaid Nikhilesh R.
        Digital Technologies in Orhodontics – An update.
        Seminars in Orthodontics, 2018
        • G.Awad Mirna
        • Skander Elouse
        • Ashley Smith
        • Vaid Nikhilesh
        • Makki Laith
        • Ferguson Donald J.
        Accuracy of Digital Predictions with CAD/CAM Labial and Lingual Appliances: A retrospective Cohort Study.
        Seminars in Orthodontics, 2018
        • Kim J
        • Kim S
        • Kook Y
        • Chung K
        • Nelson G
        Analysis of lingual en masse retraction combining a C-lingual retractor and a palatal plate.
        Angle Orthodont. 2011; : 81
        • Sifakakis I
        • Pandis N
        • Makou M
        • Eliades T
        • Katsaros C
        • Bourauel C.
        A comparative assessment of torque generated by lingual and conventional brackets.
        Eur J Orthodont. 2013 Jun 1; 35: 375-380
        • Liang W
        • Rong Q
        • Lin J
        • Xu B.
        Torque control of the maxillary incisors in lingual and labial orthodontics: A 3-dimensional finite element analysis.
        AJO-DO. 2009; 135: 316-322
        • Das SK.
        Simplified manual setup and customization by resin core indirect bonding technique: Lingual orthodontics on your own.
        J Indian Orthod Soc. 2016; 50: 23-32
        • Scuzzo G
        • Takemoto K.
        Biomechanics and comparative biomechanics in Invisible Orthodontics- Current Concepts and Solutions in Lingual Orthodontics.
        Quintessence Germany;. 2003; : 55-59 p
        • Geron S
        • Romano R
        • Brosh T.
        Vertical forces in labial and lingual orthodontics applied on maxillary incisors- a theoretical approach.
        Angle Orthodont. 2004; 74: 195-201
        • Smith RJ
        • Burstone CJ.
        Mechanics of tooth movement.
        AJO-DO. 1984; 85: 294-307
        • Gjessing P.
        A universal retraction spring.
        J Clin Orthodont. 1994; 28: 222-242
        • Hong R
        • Heo J
        • Ha Y.
        Lever-arm and mini-implant system for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment.
        Angle Orthodont. 2005; 75: 129-141
        • Nanda R
        • Uribe F
        • Yadav S.
        Temporary Anchorage Devices in Orthodontics.
        Elsevier, 2020
        • Pablo Echarri
        y microimplantes, Tecnica completa paso a paso. Ripano S.A(Madrid), 2012
        • Rafi Romano
        Lingual and Esthetic Orthodontics.
        Quintessence United Kingdom. 2011; : 429-460
        • Fayed M
        • Pazera P
        • Katsaros C.
        Optimal sites for orthodontic mini-implant placement assessed by cone beam computed tomography.
        Angle Orthodont. 2010; 80: 939-951
        • Vanden Bulcke MM
        • Burstone CJ
        • Sachdeva RCL
        Dermaut LR. Location of the centers of resistance for anterior teeth during re- traction using the laser reflection technique.
        AJO-DO. 1987; 91: 375-384
        • Yoshida N
        • Jost- Brinkmann PG
        • Koga Y
        • Mimaki N
        • Kobayashi K
        Experimental evaluation of initial tooth displacement center of resistance and center of rotation under the influence of an orthodontic force.
        AJO-DO. 2001; 120: 190-197
        • Penderson E
        • Isidor F
        • Gjessing P
        • Andersen K.
        Location of center of resistance for maxillary anterior teeth measured on human autopsy material.
        Eur J Orthodont. 1991; 13: 452-458
        • Bourauel C
        • Drescher D
        • Their M.
        An Experimental apparatus for the simulation of three-dimensional movements in orthodontics.
        Biomed Eng. 1992; 14: 371-378
        • Deguchi T
        • Terao F
        • Aonuma T
        • Kataoka T
        • Sugawara Y
        • Yamashiro T.
        Outcome assessment of lingual and labial appliances compared with cephalometric analysis, peer assessment rating, and objective grading system in Angle Class II extraction cases.
        Angle Orthodont. 2023; 85 (201): 400-407
        • Aravind M
        • Shivaprakash G
        • Ramesh G
        Torque control in lingual orthodontics.
        Orthodont Art Pract Dentofac Enhance. 2013; 14: 186-196
        • Park JH
        • Kook YA
        • Kojima Y
        • Yun S
        • Chae JM.
        Palatal en-masse retraction of segmented maxillary anterior teeth: A finite element study. The Korean Journal of.
        Orthodontics. 2019; 49: 188
        • Feng Y
        • Kong WD
        • Cen W
        • Zhong Zhou X
        • Zhang W
        • Li QT
        Finite element analysis of the effect of power arm locations on tooth movement in extraction space closure with miniscrew anchorage in customized lingual orthodontic treatment.
        AJO-DO. 2019; 156: 210-219
        • Murali RV
        • Rajasekhar L
        Rohit Pani Shankar K. Direct bonding of lingual orthodontic brackets - Kommon base technique.
        World Appl Sci J. 2014; 30: 858-861
        • Hiro T
        • Iglesia F de
        • Andreu P
        Indirect bonding technique in lingual orthodontics: the HIRO system.
        Prog Orthod. 2008; 9: 34-45