Maxillary incisor-based objectives in present-day orthodontics

Published:November 07, 2022DOI:


      Orthodontists should be familiar in examining all the components of a smile. A parallel position of the facial aspect of the incisor crown to the face is considered to be the most aesthetic position of the maxillary incisor. A more anterior position of the maxillary central incisors has been shown to be more acceptable than a more posterior position. Exposition of the incisor should not be larger than 3 mm in relationship to the upper lip. The lack of objective criteria to position incisors may be a first step to make the patient become dissatisfied with the treatment result. This paper discusses the ideal buco-ligual inclination for maxillary central incisor, and their horizontal and vertical position. A simple way to determine a virtual goal for maxillary incisor position, using digital tools, will be explained as well as how to transfer the occlusal plane to 3d planning softwares. A clinical case is presented using the Glabellar vertical line, the Mid-forehead vertical line and the Functional Esthetical Oclusal Plane as tools to determine where the maxillary central incisors should be positioned for optimal esthetic results.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Seminars in Orthodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Yarbus AL.
        Eye movements during perception of complex objects eye movements and vision.
        Springer Science+Busines Media, New York1967: 179-180 (191)
        • Wang X
        • Cai B
        • Cao Y
        • Zhou C
        • Yang L
        • Liu R
        • et al.
        Objective method for evaluating orthodontic treatment from the lay perspective: an eye-tracking study.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2016; 150: 601-610
        • Andrews WA.
        AP relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in adult white females.
        Angle Orthod. 2008; 78: 662-669
        • Ghaleb N
        • Bouserhal J
        • Bassil-Nassif N.
        Aesthetic evaluation of profile incisor inclination.
        Eur J Orthod. 2011; 33: 228-235
        • Cao L
        • Zhang K
        • Bai D
        • Jing Y
        • Tian Y
        • Guo Y.
        Effect of maxillary incisor labiolingual inclination and anteroposterior position on smiling profile esthetics.
        Angle Orthod. 2011; 81: 121-129
        • Brandão RCB
        • Brandão LBC.
        Finishing procedures in orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics).
        Dental Press J Orthod. 2013; 18: 147-174
        • Andrews LF.
        The 6-elements orthodontic philosophy: Treatment goals, classification, and rules for treating.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2015; 148: 883-887
        • Schlosser JB
        • Preston CB
        • Lampasso J.
        The effects of computer-aided anteroposterior maxillary incisor movement on ratings of facial attractiveness.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005; 127: 17-24
      1. Andrews LF, Andrews WA. Syllabus of the Andrews orthodontic philosophy. San Diego; 2001.

        • Carruitero M
        • Ambrosio-Vallejos X
        • Flores-Mir C.
        Glabellar vertical line as a reference goal for anteroposterior maxillary position.
        Dental Press J Orthod. 2019; 24 (.): e41-e45
        • Vig RG
        • Brundo GC.
        The kinetics of anterior tooth display.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1978; 39: 502-504
        • Burstone CJ
        • Marcotte MR.
        Problem solving in Orthodontics: goal-oriented treatment strategies.
        Carol Stream, Ill: Quintessence Pub Co, 2000
        • Camara CA
        • Martins RP.
        Functional aesthetic occlusal plane (FAOP).
        Dental Press J Orthod. 2016; 21: 114-125
        • Paquette DE.
        Importance of the occlusal plane in virtual treatment planning.
        J Clin Orthod. 2011; XLV: 217-221
        • Ackerman JL
        • Ackerman MB
        • Brensinger CM
        • Landis JR.
        A morphometric analysis of the posed smile.
        Clin Orthod Res. 1998; 1: 2-11
        • Hulsey CM.
        An esthetic evaluation of lip-teeth relationships present in the smile.
        Am J Orthod. 1970; 57: 132-144
        • Sarver DM
        • Ackerman MB.
        Dynamic smile visualization and quantification: Part 2. Smile analysis and treatment strategies.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003; 124: 116-127
        • Batwa W
        • Hunt NP
        • Petrie A
        • Gill D.
        Effect of occlusal plane on smile attractiveness.
        Angle Orthod. 2012; 82: 218-223