Evaluating the accuracy of facial models obtained from volume wrapping: 2D images on CBCT versus 3D on CBCT

Published:October 10, 2018DOI:


      Purpose: To test for difference in accuracy of 3D facial integument measurements of three indirect facial measurement techniques compared to measuring integument facial features directly. Materials & Methods: Four measurement methods were used to measure 25 patients (15 females and 10 males): 1) direct anthropometric facial (direct), 2) volume wrapping 2D images on CBCT (2D wrap), 3) volume wrapping 3D facial scan using Artec Eva on CBCT (3D wrap), and 4) direct 3D face scan (3D scan). Statistical differences were determined at the 99% probability level and clinical significance was >0.5 mm. Results: Direct technique measurements were significantly smaller than the other three techniques in 7 of 26 (26.8%) measurements. Differences between 3 of 7 measurements exceeded 0.5 mm and were deemed clinically significant, i.e. upper face height (N-Sto), lower face height (Sn-Gn) and nasal tip projection (Sn-Prn). The remaining 23 of 26 direct measurements could be substituted by 2D wrap, 3D wrap or 3D scan measurement techniques. Compared to the direct technique, 2D volume wrap on CBCT values were closer than the values obtained from the 3D volume wrap and 3D CBCT techniques. Conclusions: Compared to the “gold standard” direct measurements, the other three techniques in 23 of 26 face and ear measurements (88.5%) could be substituted one for the other, and demonstrated a fairly high level of precision.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Seminars in Orthodontics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Aldridge K.
        • Boyadjiev S.A.
        • Capone G.T.
        • DeLeon V.B.
        • Richtsmeier J.T.
        Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images.
        Am J Med Genet. 2005; 138A: 247-253
        • Ayoub A.F.
        • Xiao Y.
        • Khambay B.
        • Siebert J.P.
        • Hadley D.
        Towards building a photo-realistic virtual human face for craniomaxillofacial diagnosis and treatment planning.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007; 36: 423-428
        • Proffit W.R.
        • Fields H.W.
        • Sarver D.M.
        • Ackerman J.L.
        Contemporary Orthodontics.
        5th edition. Elsevier Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri, USA2013: 63043
        • Lane C.
        • Harrell Jr, W.
        Completing the 3-dimensional picture.
        Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2008; 133: 612-620
        • Curry S.
        • Baumrind S.
        • Carlson S.
        • Beers A.
        • Boyd R.
        Integrated three-dimensional craniofacial mapping at the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory - University of the Pacific.
        Semin Orthod. 2001; 7: 258-265
        • Hajeer M.Y.
        • Ayoub A.F.
        • Millett D.T.
        • Bock M.
        • Siebert J.P.
        Three-dimensional imaging in orthognathic surgery: The clinical application of a new method.
        Int J Adult Orthod Orthog Surg. 2002; 17: 318-330
        • Weinberg S.M.
        • Naidoo S.
        • Govier D.P.
        • Martin R.A.
        • Kane A.A.
        • Marazita M.L.
        Anthropometric precision and accuracy of digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: Comparing the Genex and 3dMD imaging systems with one another and with direct anthropometry.
        J Craniofac Surg. 2006; 17: 477-483
        • Kau C.H.
        • Richmond S.
        • Incrapera A.
        • English J.
        • Xia J.J.
        Three-dimensional surface acquisition systems for the study of facial morphology and their application to maxillofacial surgery.
        Int J Med Robot Comp Assisted Surg. 2007; 3: 97-110
        • Faugeras O.
        Three-dimensional Computer Vision.
        MIT Press, London1993: 165-243
        • Wong J.Y.
        • Oh A.K.
        • Ohta E.
        • et al.
        Validity and reliability of craniofacial anthropometric measurement of 3D digital photogrammetric images.
        Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008; 45: 232-239
        • Premjani P.
        • Al Mulla A.
        • Ferguson D.J.
        Application of 3D facial models obtained from CBCT volume wrapping.
        J Clin Orthod. 2015; 49: 641-646
        • Kim S.-H.
        • Jung W.-Y.
        • Seo Y.-J.
        • Kim K.-A.
        • Park K.-H.
        • Park Y.-G.
        Accuracy and precision of integumental linear dimensions in a three-dimensional facial imaging system.
        Korean J Orthod. 2015; 45: 105-112
        • Aynechi N.
        • Larson B.E.
        • Leon-Salazar V.
        • Beiraghi S.
        Accuracy and precision of a 3D anthropometric facial analysis with and without landmark labeling before image acquisition.
        Angle Orthod. 2011; 81: 245-252